Magneto y la hemoglobina


Uy, creo que se me ha pasado el tiempo volando sin escribir por aquí.....allá voy.
Esta semana ponen en la tele X-men 2. Película que prometía, pero que a mi personalmente me quedó un poco descafeinada. Hoy voy a comentar una escena (es al principio de la peli, no desvelo nada). Se trata de un momento en el que Magneto emplea sus poderes sobre el magnetismo para arrancar todo el hierro que tiene un policía en su cuerpo. es desde el punto de vista de la ciencia una escena curiosa.

Me hizo pensar en el magnetismo y en cuál es su origen. ¿Era posible esa escena?
El cuerpo humano contiene unos 4 gramos de hierro distribuídos entre la hemoglobina (2 terceras partes), ferritina y hemosiderina. Nos sonará la primera. Proteína con sólo átomo de hierro que enlaza de forma débil con un oxígeno (para tarnsportarlo y poder liberarlo de forma fácil).

Vale, pero ¿por qué lo atrae un campo magnético? ¿puede?

Los elementos químicos tiene una característica (número cuántico) denominado spin, puede tener como valor 1/2 ó -1/2. Bien, pues si un elemento tiene electrones de un tipo que de otro, se dice que está no-apareado y el ferromagnetismo se asocia a este fenómeno.

¿Qué elementos están no-apareados? Los que dejan orbitales interiores incompletos. Brevemente: Los átomos según incorporan electrones (y protones, vamos, según nos movemos por la tabla periódica), sitúan los electrones en capas. Cada vez las capas están más alejadas porque apenas entran unos pocos electrones en ellas. Pues llega un momento, concretamente cuando se llevan 19 electrones, que nos saltamos una capa y los electrones se sitúan en una más exterior. Como si esos electrones no quisieran saber nada de sus vecinos (son dos elementos, el potasio y el calcio). Queda una capa incompleta. Después de rellenar con 2 electrones esa capa más exterior, se vuelve a rellenar la que corresponde. Pues esos elementos que rellenan la capa que el potasio y el calcio no quisieron cubrir son los que están no-apareados: escandio, titanio, vanadio, cromo, manganeso, hierro, cobalto y níquel.

Ahora, si veis la escena de la película seguro que podéis entender un poco mejor que Magneto sí pudo sacar los átomos de hierro del policía.

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